Their works include Florence Cathedral, St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, and the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini. A BRIEF HISTORY OF VENICE, ITALY. Italy's first societies emerged around 1200 B.C. The resulting Congress of Vienna (1814) restored a situation close to that of 1795, dividing Italy between Austria (in the north-east and Lombardy), the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (in the south and in Sicily), and Tuscany, the Papal States and other minor states in the centre. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire. By 1950, the economy had largely stabilized and started booming. However, in 1519 Charles V became emperor of Spain and other parts of Europe. On 25 July, Mussolini was ousted by the Great Council of Fascism and arrested by order of King Victor Emmanuel III, who appointed General Pietro Badoglio as new Prime Minister. Access the latest politics analysis and economic growth summary through 2011 for Italy from The Economist Intelligence Unit Venice developed a creation myth that it was founded by people fleeing Troy, but it was probably formed in the sixth century C.E., when Italian refugees fleeing Lombard invaders camped on the islands in the Venice lagoon. The pope at the time, Pius IX, feared that giving up power in the region could mean the persecution of Italian Catholics.. In the first year of his government, Prodi had followed a cautious policy of economic liberalization and reduction of public debt. In turn the bishops swore allegiance to the Italian state, which had a veto power over their selection. Decades later, the armies of Eastern Emperor Justinian entered Italy with the goal of re-establishing imperial Roman rule, which led to the Gothic War that devastated the whole country with famine and epidemics. Nevertheless, Italian nationalists considered World War I a mutilated victory and that sentiment led to the rise of the fascist dictatorship of Benito Mussolini in 1922.  Augustus' enlightened rule resulted in a 200 years long peaceful and thriving era for the Empire, known as Pax Romana. Milan, Florence and Venice, as well as several other Italian city-states, played a crucial innovative role in financial development, devising the main instruments and practices of banking and the emergence of new forms of social and economic organization.. The maritime republics, especially Venice and Genoa, soon became Europe's main gateways to trade with the East, establishing colonies as far as the Black Sea and often controlling most of the trade with the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic Mediterranean world. Industrial wages kept pace but not wages for farm workers. Ancient Italy. On the next day, he was executed for high treason, as sentenced in absentia by a tribunal of the CLN. Since its formation in 1861, Italy has struggled to develop an effective political system and a secure sense of national identity. Meanwhile, the Allies advanced in southern Italy. Famous vernacular poets of the 15th century include the Renaissance epic authors Luigi Pulci (Morgante), Matteo Maria Boiardo (Orlando Innamorato), and Ludovico Ariosto (Orlando Furioso). In World War I, Italy joined the Entente with France and Britain, despite having been a member of the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and gave a fundamental contribution to the victory of the conflict as one of the principal allied powers.  Italian explorers discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the Age of Discovery.. In 1155, Emperor Manuel Komnenos attempted to regain Southern Italy from the Normans, but the attempt failed and in 1158 the Byzantines left Italy. In addition, a large Italian resistance movement started a long guerrilla war against the German and Fascist forces. , In the 4th century BCE the Republic came under attack by the Gauls, who initially prevailed and sacked Rome. In Northern Italy, industrialisation and modernisation began in the last part of the 19th century. The Roman Republic was formed out of the papal holdings while the pope himself was sent to France. It took control of Somalia and Eritrea. Italy - Italy - Economy: The Italian economy has progressed from being one of the weakest economies in Europe following World War II to being one of the most powerful.  This situation was partially reversed when, in 1734, the Spanish Bourbons received Naples and Sicily (the kingdom of the Two Sicilies). The theory of Trasformismo was that a cabinet should select a variety of moderates and capable politicians from a non-partisan perspective. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, other national monarchs he had installed tried to keep their thrones by feeding those nationalistic sentiments, setting the stage for the revolutions to come.  The Italian Renaissance spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, and art with the start of the modern era. History, map and timeline of Italy in 1789. He transformed the office into a dictatorship and allied with Hitler’s Germany, but was forced to flee when World War II turned Italy against him. (In addition, the Nationalist Spanish Navy sank 48 Republican and 44 foreign merchant ships, for a total of 240,000 tons, and captured 202 Republican and 23 foreign merchant ships, for a total of 330,000 tons.). Crawley, ed. The arrival of the first hominins was 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. Berlusconi participated in the US-led multinational coalition in Iraq. Mussolini became the youngest-ever prime minister of Italy in 1922, using his fascist organization of “Blackshirts” to propel him to power. On 28 October, Mussolini launched an attack on Greece without consulting Hilter, who was informed of the invasion Greco-Italian War by reading about it in the morning newspaper and was furious. The Papacy regained its authority, and undertook a long struggle against the Holy Roman Empire. El Alamein was a battle that was lost with great honour, facing up to overwhelmingly superior firepower with poor weapons but with great spirit and capacity to resist and to hold up high the honour of Italy". The history of Italy following the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was characterized by foreign domination and economic decline. The rest of this lesson will examine the rise and events of Italy's fascist experiment. While both ideologies had significant similarities, the two factions were suspicious of each other, and both leaders were in competition for world influence.  Central Italy remained under the Papal States, while the southern part remained largely feudal due to a succession of Byzantine, Arab, Norman, Spanish, and Bourbon conquests. He played an important role in Italian unification when he and his volunteer army of “Redshirts” captured Sicily and Naples and allowed them to join the Kingdom of Italy. When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 beginning World War II, Mussolini chose to stay non-belligerent, although he declared his support for Hitler. The Gauls destroyed much of Rome's historical records when they sacked the city after the Battle of the Allia in 390 BCE (Varronian, according to Polybius the battle occurred in 387/6) and what was left was eventually lost to time or theft. Brief Overview of Tuscany's History. In that year, he took the name Augustus.  In November 2011 tests conducted at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit in England on what were previously thought to be Neanderthal baby teeth, which had been unearthed in 1964 dating from between 43,000 and 45,000 years ago. Mussolini promised to bring Italy back as a great power in Europe, building a "New Roman Empire" and holding power over the Mediterranean Sea. Frederick Artz emphasizes the benefits the Italians gained from the French Revolution: The Risorgimento was the political and social process that unified different states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. In 1938, under influence of Hitler, Mussolini supported the adoption of anti-semitic racial laws in Italy. The Church was not officially obligated to support the Fascist regime; the strong differences remained but the seething hostility ended. The city of Syracuse in Sicily was once the largest Ancient Greek city in the world. Caesar reconciled the two more powerful men in Rome: Marcus Licinius Crassus, his sponsor, and Crassus' rival, Pompey. There is the executive branch, headed by the head of government and the council of ministers. Mercenaries were also a constant threat to their employers; if not paid, they often turned on their patron. Those in favour of unification also faced opposition from the Holy See, particularly after failed attempts to broker a confederation with the Papal States, which would have left the Papacy with some measure of autonomy over the region. Artistic and literary sentiment also turned towards nationalism; and perhaps the most famous of proto-nationalist works was Alessandro Manzoni's I Promessi Sposi (The Betrothed). On 24 and 25 February 2013 a new election was held; the centre-left coalition of Pier Luigi Bersani, leader of the Democratic Party, win a majority in the Chamber of Deputies but not in the Senate. The succeeding centre-left government, including most of the same parties, was headed by Giuliano Amato (social-democratic), who previously served as Prime Minister in 1992–93, from April 2000 until June 2001. Second was a profound disillusionment after the heavy losses of the First World War. $2.99 #32.  Numantia fell and was completely razed to the ground in 133 BCE.  An estimated 1,356,460 Jews were killed as a result of the First Jewish Revolt; the Second Jewish Revolt (115–117) led to the death of more than 200,000 Jews; and the Third Jewish Revolt (132–136) resulted in the death of 580,000 Jewish soldiers. Ever since it had been badly defeated in Ethiopia in 1896, there was a strong demand for seizing that country. In the 1950s and 1960s the country enjoyed prolonged economic boom, which was accompanied by a dramatic rise in the standard of living of ordinary Italians. A new government was formed by Democrats of the Left leader and former communist Massimo D'Alema, but in April 2000, following poor performance by his coalition in regional elections, D'Alema resigned. The political and social events in the restoration period of Italy (1815–1835) led to popular uprisings throughout the peninsula and greatly shaped what would become the Italian Wars of Independence. The site of Rome had a ford where the Tiber could be crossed. That choice caused his downfall. , By the late Middle Ages, central and southern Italy, once the heartland of the Roman Empire and Magna Graecia respectively, was far poorer than the north. Italy participated in the war primarily to gain new territory in the North and the East; it blocked a major Austrian peace proposal in 1918. Carpanetto, Dino, and Giuseppe Ricuperati. , In the early 16th century, Baldassare Castiglione with The Book of the Courtier laid out his vision of the ideal gentleman and lady, while Niccolò Machiavelli in The Prince, laid down the foundation of modern philosophy, especially modern political philosophy, in which the effective truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal. , At the time, the struggle for Italian unification was perceived to be waged primarily against the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, since they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of present-day Italy and were the single most powerful force against unification. On June 11 , 1940 , the Italian air force attacked Malta, while, on the same day, British planes carried out a small bombing raid on the Italian colony of Eritrea (in Africa) as well as on the Italian cities of Genoa and Turin. Badoglio stripped away the final elements of Fascist rule by banning the National Fascist Party, then signed an armistice with the Allied armed forces. The History of Padua. Italy Profile ; History ; News and Current Events ; Italy Becomes a Unified Peninsula . The historical Etruscans had achieved a form of state with remnants of chiefdom and tribal forms. In 1928, all political parties were banned, and parliamentary elections were replaced by plebiscites in which the Grand Council of Fascism nominated a single list of 400 candidates. The capital of Italy is moved from Turin to Florence, in order to approach it to Rome, considered the natural capital, but still under Papal rule and French protection. The 1919–20 period was characterized by mass strikes, worker manifestations as well as self-management experiments through land and factory occupations. Eventually, after years of inconclusive fighting, with the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559) France renounced all its claims in Italy thus inaugurating a long Habsburg hegemony over the Peninsula.  A constitution set a series of checks and balances, and a separation of powers. The king's regent, prince Charles Albert, acting while the king Charles Felix was away, approved a new constitution to appease the revolutionaries, but when the king returned he disavowed the constitution and requested assistance from the Holy Alliance. Definition and Examples, Biography of Giuseppe Garibaldi, Revolutionary Hero Who United Italy, The Origin and Decline of the Papal States, Biography of Benito Mussolini, Fascist Dictator of Italy, Monarchs and Presidents of Italy From 1861 to 2015, Industry and Agriculture History in Europe, M.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University, B.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University. After WWII, Italy became a republic and prospered. At the Battle of Aquae Sextiae and the Battle of Vercellae the Germans were virtually annihilated, which ended the threat. However, the French then formed an alliance with some Italian states called the league of Cognac.  From the 10th to the 13th centuries these cities built fleets of ships both for their own protection and to support extensive trade networks across the Mediterranean, leading to an essential role in the Crusades. With this colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites and its traditions of the independent polis. , When the Treaty of London was announced in May 1915, there was an uproar from antiwar elements. In the eighth and seventh centuries BCE, for various reasons, including demographic crisis (famine, overcrowding, etc. The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. After the Revolutions of 1848, the apparent leader of the Italian unification movement was Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi. The Roman Empire would go on to define much of Europe's history, leaving a mark on culture and society that outlasted the military and political machinations of its leadership. ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, intermittent warfare with the Germanic tribes, Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars, Military history of Italy during World War I, Italian intervention in the Spanish Civil War, Military history of Italy during World War II, List of consorts of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, List of Italian inventions and discoveries, List of monarchs of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, "Modern Capitalism Its Origin and Evolution", National Geographic Italia – Erano padani i primi abitanti d’Italia, "Fossil Teeth Put Humans in Europe Earlier Than Thought", "Mitochondrial DNA variation of modern Tuscans supports the near eastern origin of Etruscans", "Origins and Evolution of the Etruscans' mtDNA", "Were the Etruscans after all native Italians? However, on the other hand, transportation was difficult, soil fertility was low with extensive erosion, deforestation was severe, many businesses could stay open only because of high protective tariffs, large estates were often poorly managed, most peasants had only very small plots, and there was chronic unemployment and high crime rates. Art in Italy was properly strengthened and refined during Roman times. This situation was shaken in 1796, when the French Army of Italy under Napoleon invaded Italy, with the aims of forcing the First Coalition to abandon Sardinia (where they had created an anti-revolutionary puppet-ruler) and forcing Austria to withdraw from Italy. Although the Italian Army was far better armed than the Fascist militias, the liberal system and King Victor Emmanuel III were facing a deeper political crisis. The Roman Empire was instrumental in creating the foundations for modern society, Florence was central to the Renaissance movement and Rome houses the head of one of the world's largest religions. From 1946, when the monarchy was abolished, Italy became a democratic republic. In face of the threat of a French hegemony over much of Europe, a Grand Alliance between Austria, England, the Dutch Republic and other minor powers (within which the Duchy of Savoy) was signed in The Hague. The government imposed high wage scales, as well as collective bargaining and insurance schemes. The refusal of the Allies to grant these promised territories caused widespread indignation among Italian nationalists, while poet and adventurer Gabriele D'Annunzio led an expedition to occupy ethnic Italian Fiume, assigned to Yugoslavia. The Socialist Party became the main political party, outclassing the traditional liberal and conservative organisations. In addition, France turned the Netherlands into the Batavian Republic, and Switzerland into the Helvetic Republic. Italy is the home of the Roman Empire and …  Emigration was especially directed to the factories of the so-called "industrial triangle", a region encompassed between the major manufacturer centers of Milan and Turin and the seaport of Genoa. The nuraghe towers are unanimously considered the best-preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. Days later on 2 May 1945, the German forces in Italy surrendered. The 1840 version of I Promessi Sposi used a standardized version of the Tuscan dialect, a conscious effort by the author to provide a language and force people to learn it. As the Allies advanced north, they encountered increasingly difficult terrain, as mountains offered excellent defensive position to Axis forces. Some read this novel as a thinly veiled allegorical critique of Austrian rule. , Thanks to their favorable position between East and West, Italian cities such as Venice became international trading and banking hubs and intellectual crossroads. Great explorers, like Christopher Colu… After the fall of the Roman empire, the region, which became known as Tuscany (Toscana in Italian) came under the rule of a succession of rulers (Herulians, Ostrogoths, etc.)  Even northern cities and states were also notable for their merchant republics, especially the Republic of Venice. The Alliance successfully fought and defeated the Franco-Spanish "Party of the Two Crowns", and the subsequent Treaty of Utrecht and Rastatt pass control of much of Italy (Milan, Naples and Sardinia) from Spain to Austria, while Sicily was ceded to the Duchy of Savoy. He consolidated old units and split up Austria's holdings. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Greeks, Etruscans, and Celts have inhabited the Italian Peninsula, with various Italic peoples dispersed throughout Italy alongside other ancient Italian tribes and Greek, Carthaginian, and Phoenician colonies. He decided to include Fascists on his electoral list for 1921 elections. Approximatively four waves of population from north to the Alps have been identified. The Italian trade routes that covered the Mediterranean and beyond were major conduits of culture and knowledge. Italy is a country in south Europe and a member of the European Union. Ferdinand abolished the constitution and began systematically persecuting known revolutionaries. , In 27 BCE, Octavian was the sole Roman leader. Other cities in Magna Graecia included Tarentum (Τάρας), Epizephyrian Locri (Λοκροί Ἐπιζεφύριοι), Rhegium (Ῥήγιον), Croton (Κρότων), Thurii (Θούριοι), Elea (Ἐλέα), Nola (Νῶλα), Ancona (Ἀγκών), Syessa (Σύεσσα), Bari (Βάριον), and others. 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